1. Pycnogenol? slows down the process of decline in the activities of immune and blood generating systems related to aging and restores their functions to normal. Liu, F.J., Zhang, Y.X. and Lau B.H.S. (1998). Pycnogenol? enhances immune and haemopoietic function in senescence-accelerated mice. CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life. Sci., 54:1168-1172.
2. Pycnogenol? inhibits the formation of reactive metabolites of the tobacco-specific nitroso compound and thus supports a chemo-preventive action against NNK induced lung cancer. Huynh, H.T. and Teel, R.W (1998). Effects of Pycnogenol on the microsomal metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK as a function of age. Cancer letters, 132:135-139.
3. Pycnogenol? counteracts the constriction of blood vessels due to stress. The vaso-relaxant activity of Pycnogenol? is mediated through nitric oxide. Fitzpatrick, D.F., Bing, B. and Rohdewald, P. (1998) Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol?. Jour. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 32: 509-515.
4. Pycnogenol increases human endurance during exercise by 21% providing antioxidant reserves. Pavlovic, P., Swanson, D. and Tirado, D. (1998). Human response to physical stress improved by antioxidants. Proc. Oxygen Society meeting on 20th November, 1998 (Abstract).
.5. Pycnogenol? improves the morphology of spermatozoas. The percentage of non-deformed sperms in sub-fertile men was increased by 99% after supplementation with Pycnogenol? for three months. Roseff, S: Kessler, K and Gulati, R. (1998). Oral administration of Pycnogenol?, A novel antioxidant affects baseline human sperm morphology, but not sperm count, motility or functions. Proc. 54th Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Reprod. Med. October, 1998 in San Francisco, USA.
6. Pycnogenol? protects alpha-tocopherol in endothelial cells.Virgili F., Klm, D., and Packer, L. (1998). Procyanidins extracted from pine bark protect alpha-tocopherol in ECV 304 endothelial cells challenged by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of nitric oxide peroxynitrite. FEBS letters, 431:315-318.
7. Pycnogenol? inhibits the effect of oxidative stress and minimises hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro. Nelson, A.B., Lau, B.H.S., Ide, N. and Rong, Y. (1998). Pycnogenol inhibits macrophage oxidative burst, lipoprotein oxidation and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 24 (2): 139-144..
8. Review article: Pycnogenol? is a potent antioxidant. It provides cytoprotection, produces immuno-modulation and strengthens blood vessels. In addition, Pycnogenol? improves circulation by inhibiting platelets aggregation and induces vaso-dilatation. Rohdewald, P. (1998). Pycnogenol?. In Flavonoids in Health and Disease, ed. Catherine A. Rice-Evans and Lester Packer, Marcel Dekker Inc. NY, 1998, Chapter 17, pages 405-419.
9. Pycnogenol? modulates the production of nitric oxide radicals in activated inflammatory cells. Pycnogenol? produces beneficial effects in pathologies relating to oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions. Virgili, F., Kobuchi, H. and Packer, L. (1998). Nitrogen monoxide (NO) metabolism: antioxidant properties and modulation of inducible NO synthase activity in activated macrophages by Procyanidins extracted from Pinus maritima (Pycnogenol?).In Flavonoids in Health and Disease, ed. Catherine A. Rice-Evans and Lester Packer, Marcel Dekker Inc. NY, 1998., Chapter 18. Pages 421-436.
Virgili, F., Kobuchi, H. and Packer, L. (1998). Procyanidins extracted from Pinus maritima (Pycnogenol?) scavengers of free radical species and modulators of nitrogen monoxide metabolism in activated murine raw 264.7 macrophages. Free Radical Biology & Medecine 24 (7/8) 1120-1129.
10. Pycnogenol? prolongs the lifetime of vitamin C more than other flavonoids. Cossins, E., Lee, R. and Packer, L. (1998). ESR studies of vitamin C regeneration, order of reactivity of natural source phytochemical preparations. Biochem Mol. Biol. Int., 45 (3): 583-597.
11. Pycnogenol? is shown to be the strongest hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger among other extracts tested. In addition, Pycnogenol? is resistant to heat and ascorbate oxidase. Noda, Y., Anzai, K., Mori, A., Kohno, M., Shinreel, M. and Packer, L. (1997) Hydroxyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of natural source antioxidants using the computerized JES-FR3 ESR spectrometer system. Biochem. & Mol. Biol. Int., 42 (1): 35-44.
12. Pycnogenol? enhances clearance of H202 and O2-. It increases the GSH-redox cycle and antioxidant enzymes (SOD & CAT) activities. These antioxidant mechanisms may contribute to the beneficial effects of Pycnogenol? in cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, ischemia, inflammatory diseases and the aging process. Wei, Z H., Peng Q.L., Lau B.H.S. (1997). Pycnogenol enhances endothelial cell antioxidant defences. Redox Report, 3 (4): 219-224.
13. Pycnogenol? by mouth produces an anti-oedema effect. Topical application of Pycnogenol? gel protects the skin against UV radiation. Blazso, G., Gabor, M. and Rohdewald, P. (1997). Antiinflammatory activities of procyanidin containing extracts from Pinus pinaster Ait. after oral and cutaneous application. Pharmazie, 52 (5): 380-382.
14. Pycnogenol? protects the retina of the eye against free radicals damage. Ueda, T., Ueda, T. and Armstrong D. (1996). Preventive effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in the mammalian eye. Ophthalmic Res., 28: 184-192.
15. Pycnogenol? inhibits the angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) and produces a moderate hypotensive effect in rats. This is not an anti-hypertensive effect, as that of Captopril?. Blazso, G., Gaspar R.,Gabor, M., RQve H-J and Rohdewald, P. (1996). ACE inhibition and hypotensive effect of procyanidinis containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol. Pharm. Pharmacol. Lett., 6(1): 8-11.
16. Pycnogenol? enhances the activity of the immune system in mice infected with a leukemia- causing retrovirus. Pycnogenol? increases the natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Cheshier, J.E. Ardestani-Kaboudanian, S., Liang B., Araghinicknam, M.Chung, S., Lane, L. Castro, A. Watson, R.R. (1996) Immuno-modulation by Pycnogenol in retro-virus infected or ethanol-fed mice. Life Sci., 5: 87-96.
17. Pycnogenol? protects the endothelial cells which line the blood vessels from free radicals damage. Damage to endothelial cells is considered a prime cause for atherosclerosis. Rong Y., Li, L., Shah, V. and Lau B.H.S. (1995). Pycnogenol protects vascular endothelial cells from t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidant injury. Biotechnology Therapeutics, 5 (3 & 4): 117-126.
18. Pycnogenol? produces an anti-oedema effect. Applied topically, Pycnogenol? significantly reduces UVB radiation induced-erythema. Blazso, G., Rohdewald, P., Sibbel, R. and Gabor, M. (1995) Anti-inflammatory activities of procyanidin-containing extracts from Pinus pinaster sol. Proceedings of the International Biofiavonoid Symposium, Vienna, Austria, ed. Antus, S., Gabor, M. and Vetschera, K. July 16-19, 1995 pages 231-238.
19. Pycnogenol? produces vaso-protective an effect at the level of capillaries as shown in clinical studies. Pycnogenol? decreases oedema and haemorrhagic tendencies in conditions characterised by increased capillary permeability. Becker, S.R. (1995). Le pycnogenol: une substance doue’e de properietees angioprotectrices Dans le traitement de I’insuffisance veineuse chronique. Journal Suisse de medicine globale, 1/95: 11-14 et 2/95: 69-73.
20. The efficacy of Pycnogenol? has been confirmed on the basis of objective and subjective signs and symptoms of static oedema in a double blind study in 40 patients suffering from venous insufficiency. Pycnogenol? is a safe veno- protector. Schmidtke, I. And Schoop, W. (1995). Le pycnogenol: Therapeutique medicamenteuse de l’oede’me statique. Journal Suisse de m~dicine global?, 3/95:114-115.
21. Pycnogenol? scavenges superoxide radicals in vitro and inhibits oedema in vivo. The anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities are closely correlated. Blazso, G. Gabor, M., Sibbel, IR. and Rohdewald, P. (1994) Anti-inflammatory and superoxide radical scavenging activities of procyanidins containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster sol. and its fractions. Pharm. Parmacol. Left., 3: 217-220.
22. Pycnogenol? increases the pathologically low capillary wall resistance. Pycnogenol? is shown to be the most potent among other bioflavonoids tested. Pycnogenol? provides strength to capillary walls and makes them less permeable and thus contributes to anti-oedema, anti-inflammatory effects. Gabor, M.Engi, E. and Sonkodi, S. (1993). Die Kapillarwandresistenz und ihre Beeinfiussung durch wasserlOsliche Flavonderivate bei spontan hypertonischen Ratten. Phlebologie, 22:178-182.
23. Pycnogenol? protects the skin from oxidative oxidative stress injury (lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity). The protective effects were related to dose, with the highest concentration providing the greatest benefits. Gouchang, Z. (1993). Ultraviolet radiation-induced oidative stress in cultured human skin fibroblasts and antioxidant protection. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jyvaskyla 33:1-86, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
24. Pycnogenol? was proved to be an excellent radical scavenger of enzymatically produced hydroxyl and singlet oxygen free radicals, two of the most dangerous free radicals. Elstner, E.F. and Kleber, E. (1990). Radical scavenger properties of leucocyanidine. In: Das NP, ed. Flavonoids in Biology & Medecine IIh Current issues in Flavonoid Research: National University of Singapore Press (1990): 221-235.
25. Pycnogenol? prevents the breakdown of elastin, a type of connective tissue, through inflammation and free-radical attack. This action explains how Pycnogenol? strengthens blood vessels and other tissues such as skin. Tixier, J. M., Godeau, G., Robert, A. M. and Homebeck, W. (1984). Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of Pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Biochemical Pharmacology, 33: 3933-3939.